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What is a Calorie?[KAL-uh-ree]
Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. The values for food energy are expressed in kilocalories (kcal) and kilojoules (kJ). Commonly a kilocalorie is simply referred to as a "Calorie". In other words, nobody really discusses a Kilocalorie when discussing food energy; rather, people mention a Calorie and they are really referring to a Kilocalorie.
Technically speaking, one food Calorie (1 kcal or 1,000 calories) is the amount of digestively available food energy (heat) that will raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree Celsius.
Calorie name coined by Atwater in 1895
How many Calories do I need per day?